W spektaklu baletowym można określić: tworzenie znaków, konwencje oraz zgodę pomiędzy partnerami (artystami przed występem). Spektakl baletowy jest wyobrażeniem znaków. W prosty spoób można to określić jako naśladowanie pewnych gestów przez aktorów.
Archiwum - 1(5)/2011 ISSN 1897-0389
Językoznawstwo nr 5 rok 2011 ISSN 1897-0389
- Anna Bielska, Three Polish transaltions of Romeo and Juliet
- Dorota Gonigroszek, Językoznawstwo kognitywne: „ucieleśniony” umysł i znaczenie
- Dorota Gonigroszek, Ominięcie tabu językowego poprzez metonimiczne użycie nazw kolorów w języku angielskim
- Iwona Gryz, Utrwalanie słownictwa na lekcjach języka polskiego w szkole podstawowej – integracja sensoryczna w pracy z uczniem dyslektycznym
- Agnieszka Gwiazdowska, Motywacja frazeologiczna w ujęciu kognitywnym na przykładzie frazeologizmów zoonimicznych
- Judyta Kabus, Interdyscyplinarność dyskursu
- Joanna Konsiel-Kaczmarek, Czym jest wypowiedź?
- Dorota Leśniak, Nabywanie opozycji fonologicznych w procesie rozwoju mowy dziecka według koncepcji Jakobsona
- Karolina Lisczyk, Semantyka kognitywna w badaniach nad kategorią fazowości – możliwości i ograniczenia
- Karolina Lokert, Dyskurs polityczny – analiza KAD
- Aneta Majkowska, O metodzie kwantytatywnej w analizie dyskursu edukacyjnego
- Anna Maria Mikołajczyk, Ślady filozofii dialogu w koncepcji języka poetyckiego Marzanny Bogumiły Kielar
- Tetyana Novak-Piasecka, Analiza dyskursu medialnego: lingwistyczna analiza dyskursu programu telewizyjnego America’s Got Talent (Ameryka ma talent)
- Anna Piotrowska, Co z tym strukturalizmem? Krótki przegląd teorii i zagadnień wybranych szkół lingwistycznych
- Anna Poniewierska, Indroduction to the definition of euphemism
- Katarzyna Rudkiewicz, Analiza kognitywna angielskiego predykatu with
- Agnieszka Sawicka, Od terminologii do słownika specjalistycznego – czyli jak skonstruować słownik profesjonalisty
- Krzysztof Sitkowski, Kompresja tekstowa jako realizacja założeń ekonomii językowej
- Olga Maria Słabońska, Remarks on the category ‘preposition’ in corpus based account: Quirk et al. 1985
- Kondrad Stobiecki, Teoria semantyki w kontekście hierarchicznych relacji semantycznych
- Joanna Szczerbowska-Kopacz, Klasyfikacja, znaczenie oraz pochodzenie nazw geograficznych w Polsce
- Aneta Urbaniak, Obraz świata ukryty w potocznej frazeologii
- Aleksandra Woszczyńska, W kręgu teorii kłamstwa
- Marta Wybraniec, Ikoniczność znaków baletowych
- Łukasz Zarzycki, Nowe umiejętności i wymagania stawiane dialektologowi w XXI wieku
StreszczenieMarta WybraniecIkoniczność znaków baletowych
AbstractAnna BielskaThree Polish translations of Romeo and Juliet
This article focuses on semantic analysis of the literature texts. The research is based on Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and its three translations by Józef Paszkowski, Maciej Słomczyński and Stanisław Barańczak. Due to the fact that the Polish versions date back to the 19th and 20th centuries the differences in terms of the choice of words applied by the translators are significant. Despite certain similarities, the examples in the article prove that there are more lexical differences.
Barańczak’s translation is the closest to Nida’s dynamic equivalence, whereas Kasprowicz’s version used by Paszkowski reflected the most successfully the spirit of Shakespeare’s times in terms of lexical elements he employed.Dorota GonigroszekCognitive linguistics: the embodied mind and linguistic meaning
The present work discusses basic tenets of cognitive linguistics. The author concentrates on the conception of embodiment, which is on the relationships between human body, culture, environment, and language. The phenomena are illustrated with numerous examples of phrases and expressions describing colour perception.Dorota GonigroszekThe metonymical use of English colour terms as a way of circumventing language tabooThe present work deals with the phenomenon of language taboo. The author points to the fact that in the English language numerous colour terms are used metonymically to avoid speaking about God, the heaven, and evil forces in a direct way. The work introduces a notion of metonymy in a form proposed by cognitive linguistics. Accordingly, we do not treat metonymy as a rhetorical figure but as a characteristic of thought. Numerous examples of phrases and sentences have been presented to illustrate our point of view. The linguistic material has been provided by the American and British prose.Iwona GryzRevising vocabulary in English lessons at primary school – the use of sensory integration for work with a dyslexic student
This article is about the practical application of new vocabulary items for English lessons in the primary school while working with dyslexic students. At the beginning the author gives a short definition of dyslexia explaining the most frequent Polish terminology. Next, she discusses the basic principles of working with dyslexic students, emphasizing the need for multisensory integration in applied language tasks. Then the three main learning styles have been listed which seem to be the best for dyslexic children: visual learners, auditory learners, and kinesthetic ones, giving a brief description of them, while presenting numerous examples of practical exercises helping to introduce or exercise new vocabulary during the foreign language classes, aimed at specific types of dyslexic students.Agnieszka GwiazdowskaMotivation of phraseological units including names of animals in the framework of cognitive linguisticsIn this article we intend to present the analysis of different types of motivation (iconic and symbolic) of the selected phraseological units containing names of animals and having a metaphorical basis both in Polish and Spanish language. The purpose of our contrastive investigations, carried out in the area of cognitive and cultural linguistics, is to present the relationship between the figurative meaning of a unit (idiom or stereotypical comparison) and the image component which forms its conceptual structure (Dobrovol’skij and Piirainen’s theory). Moreover, we will focus on how the metaphorical mapping and cultural component (cultural knowledge) influence the creation and motivation of figurative phraseological units denoting animals.Judyta KabusInterdyscyplinary discourse
The following article attempts to define the term ‘discourse’, it also presents its historical roots and presents it as a phenomenon occurring in various scientific disciplines. The first part of this article covers various definitions and interpretations of discourse as a scientific phenomenon. Moreover, several points of view stated by eminent scientists have been presented in this work. The basic idea is to present ‘discourse’ as an integral aspect of communication. The further part of the article treats the discourse as an interdisciplinary exemplar. After the explanation of the term ‘interdisciplinary’, the author presents rooting of the term in various, individually treated disciplines.Joanna Konsiel-KaczmarekWhat is a statement?Review and interpretation of lexicographic sources (the Dictionary of the Polish Language by M. Szymczak, B. Dunaj, W. Boryś, M. Bańko and J.Bralczyk) and various concepts of statement were analyzed. A polemic with Bachtin’s guidelines among others has been presented. Designing the author’s own understanding of this term, which is based on many dictionary definitions. Finally, it is the result of their verification, in order for building consistent and complete definition of a statement.Dorota LeśniakThe phonological development of child language according to JakobsonAlthough child phonology has been studied for at least two centuries there is no consensus in terms of what the main issues of the process are. Because it is interdisciplinary research there are many approaches which differ not only in details but also in the main ideas.
The attitude presented in this article takes into consideration Jakobsonian approach which deals with the most important rules that govern child language acquisition. Children during their language development pass through the series of fixed stages. And although each stage can appear at not exactly the same age of different children the relative order of the stages remains the same. What is more, there is no clear division between these stages. One of the most important rules that governs the process of language acquisition is maximal contrast. According to Jakobson the first contrasts that the child learns are the strongest and the most universal. What is more, the contrasts are acquired by the laws of irreversible solidarity. It means that one contrast implies the appearance of the next and the implied contrast is acquired first. Jakobson also noticed that oppositions that appear relatively rare in the languages of the world are usually the latest in phonological opposition of the child. Furthermore, during the process of language disintegration, the contrasts that are learned last disappear at the beginning. The contrasts that are acquired first are the strongest and they disappear last.
Thanks to this theory it is possible to foresee the process of language acquisition or its disintegration as well as language recovery.
Jakobsonian achievements inspired the author in terms of the acquisition of phonological oppositions of the second language and the results of the research are being prepared.Karolina LisczykCognitive semantics in research of the phase verbs and constructions
The main question of the article is whether the cognitive semantic is proper to analyze phase verbs and constructions. The author chose three metaphoric constructions and five verbs to analyze them in a cognitive way. This investigation proved, that when there is no analogy between the scheme of way in spatial and temporal domain, the cognitive method is often unusable to analyze phase metaphorical constructions. In this situation structural paradigm seems to be helpful.Anna PoniewierskaIntroduction to the definition of euphemism
The paper is meant as a brief introduction to the traditional method of euphemism defining in English/American and Polish linguistics. After a concise introduction to the issue at hand, purely linguistic dictionary definitions of euphemisms are compared. Next, on the basis of the discussed entries, the preliminary definition of euphemism is proposed. Finally, the similarities and differences in approaching the phenomenon from the point of view of Polish and English/American dictionaries are discussed.Aneta MajkowskaThe statistical method in the analysis of educational discourse
Discourse analysis presented through statistical NP recognizes the problem in terms of comparison. The main axis of comparison is the opposition: the text of informal and formal oral discourse. The author pays attention to these features (statistically frequent/infrequent) which show similar distributions and trends in the construction of NP in both discourses.Tetyana Novak-PiaseckaMedia discourse analysis: critical discourse analysis approach to the discourse of the television programme America’s Got Talent
This paper is an attempt of the linguistic analysis of the television programme America’s Got Talent discourse. The adopted method of analysis allows the author to build the discursive model of the programme, based on the main theoretical assumptions of CDA. The deeper insight into the material analyzed allows the author to define the format of the show as edutainment genre.Anna PiotrowskaWhat is the matter with structuralism? A short overview of theories and problems of chosen linguistic schools
The aim of this article is to provide a brief illustration of problems and theories of structuralism as a basic linguistic direction of 20th century. The author highlights the origins of structuralism (F. de Saussure, B. de Courtenay, M. Kruszewski) and its modifications. The paper begins with the statement of meanings of structuralism and deals with its functioning on linguistic basis. Some particular schools have been presented by juxtaposition of theses, stressing their origin as well as their way of evolution. The consequences of their functioning and their influence on further development of science have been indicated.Anna PoniewierskaIntroduction to the definition of euphemism.
The paper is meant as a brief introduction to the traditional method of defining euphemism in English/American and Polish linguistics. After a concise introduction to the issue at hand, purely linguistic dictionary definitions of euphemisms are compared. Next, on the basis of the discussed entries, the preliminary definition of euphemism is proposed. Finally, the similarities and differences in approaching the phenomenon from the point of view of Polish and English/American dictionaries are discussed.Anna PoniewierskaThe pre-cognitive view on euphemism among English/American and Polish linguists
The paper is meant as a brief introduction to the traditional method of euphemism defining in English/American and Polish linguistics. Other than dictionary definitions of euphemisms provided by numerous scholars dealing with the facet of language were collected and compared. Three major problems are: (i) the definition of euphemism, (ii) the criteria used while deciding whether a word is euphemistic or not, (iii) an appreciative attitude in evaluating euphemism versus a derogatory one.Katarzyna RudkiewiczA cognitive analysis of the predicate with
Cognitive Grammar views prepositions as relational atemporal predications (Langacker 1987: 214). The conceptual schema of the predication with is viewed by Langacker as a trajector – landmark relation located in space where with places its trajector in the neighbourhood of its landmark. The neighbourhood, conceptualised as a restricted area in the space, is considered as yet another landmark itself (hence a multiple landmark of the predication). The trajector and landmark in this area remain in the relation of association, whereas the relation of inclusion is observed between the trajector and the neighbourhood (Langacker 1987: 217-218). By virtue of lacking a schematic process in its conceptual base, with is classified as a simple predication.
In the present paper the author, applying the methodology within the scope of Cognitive Grammar, revisits the issue of the predicate with in Langackerian interpretation, arguing that the neighbouring area identified in the conceptual base of with contains the trajector and landmark in the primary relation of contact rather than association, profiling the point of tangency of the trajector and landmark. This constitutes the core of the re-arranged conceptual schema which sanctions a variety of senses coded by the predicate with.Agnieszka SawickaFrom terminography to LSP Dictionary - constructing a dictionary for a professionalskecz bedzi pan zadowolony
The article treats about the theory and methodology of LSP (Language for Special Purposes) dictionaries and is aimed at showing their functionality as a professional and educational tool. It starts with defining terminography and later determines the principles of terminographic work. Being a result of terminographic work, an LSP dictionary is also defined, together with its micro and macrostructure, terminographic techniques used to create it and LSP dictionary typology. The final issue undertaken is the practical application of LSP dictionaries.Krzysztof SitkowskiText compression as means of language economy
The aim of the article is to present text compression as means of language economy. With the growing pace of the development of every aspect of human life, the present world faces a growing demand for an increase in the efficiency of transferring maximum portions of information with the use of minimal resources and time. Such acceleration calls for the application of language economy, thus the use of new forms such as the compression of lexical and syntactic forms. All procedures aiming at the reduction of the volume of the portion of information can be referred to as text compression. According to the guidelines for terminological policy drawn by the UNESCO, one of the rules of creating new terminology is conciseness (language economy). Therefore, the author elaborates on the topic of text compression. Firstly, a text as the object of compression was discussed. Next, the author explained why a specialist text is a compressed one. The final part contains the characteristics and the typology of text compression.Olga SłabońskaRemarks on the category ’preposition’ in corpus based account: Quirk et al.1985
The grammatical category “preposition” has been analysed by means of different linguistic methods. The article Remarks on the category ‘preposition’ in corpus based account: Quirk et al. 1985 discusses the most widespread method to the category preposition, the syntactic-functional approach. The article aims at emphasizing the advantages of the method of the analysis as well as indicating its insufficiency in the categorization and semantic analysis of prepositions.
The first section of the article is devoted to the syntactic- functional categorisation of prepositions. Subcategorization by function is done by three syntactic-functional criteria, which help differentiate prepositions from other grammatical categories.
The second section presents subcategorization by morphology. Prepositions are categorized as simple and complex on the basis of orthographic criterion. The section analyses prepositions according to their morphological structure, organises the complex ones into groups of patterns on the basis of the elements they consist oKonrad StobieckiSemantic theories in the context of hierarchical relations
This article explores the theory of semantics in context of semantic relations i.e. hypernymy, hyponymy and coordinate terms, which are subject to changes. The author presents issues which may interest a person studying hierarchical semantic classification. The discourse derives from cognitive linguistics and its interdisciplinary character.Joanna Szczerbowska-KopaczClassification, meaning and origin of geographical names in Poland
The main aim of the scientific article is to examine Polish toponyms, especially the names of cities, towns and villages to emphasize the impact of such factors as historical events, socio-cultural traditions, the houses of nobles and geographical features on the origin, meaning and linguistic processes concerning the given toponym. The examples will show that Polish toponyms are not just proper names of no meaning but adequate and meaningful descriptions of the area they refer to.
In the opening chapters of the scientific paper the branch of linguistics which deals with classification and etymology of proper names called onomastics has been discussed. Next chapters focus on toponym etymology as well as Polish toponyms classification introduced by top linguists and onomasticians. Various types of research methods characteristic of the science of onomastics are introduced. Finally, selected Polish place-names have been analyzed. Each entry is written as entity and contains brief geographical info, history of the place description, and penetrating analysis of the name origin. The analysis will show the linguistic processes the toponyms have undergone in the course of time and how these processes influenced the change in their original form. Thus, the article deals with ethnography, anthropology, history, geography, ethnolinguistics, linguistics, etc.Aneta UrbaniakPicture of the world hidden in ordinary phraseology
The main aim of the presented article is to show the degree of use of colloquial phraseology by the random learner community. Tn the recorded material an interesting peculiarities in the way we use, modify and understand phrases have been presented. Analyzing students’ expressions in terms of language I paid attention to the linguistic picture of the world.
The results showed that the student code is very diverse and varied. It contains an emotional charge, distinguishing itself from other language systems with startling interpretation of the world, conscious phraseological innovation, numerous analogies and metaphors. They are familiar with vulgarity, bluff, borrowings and colloquialisms. The author proved that the students form a language – culture community, which has a specific vision of the world. It is a very diverse, dynamic and changing world. It surprises us with its directness and ambiguity. Young people interpret the world differently, which is very often difficult to describe and express through a literary language.Aleksandra WoszczyńskaIn the circle of ‘lies theory’
The aim of the article is to present the diverse theories of lying created by humanity in the flow of its history. The notion of lying is wide, therefore the author selected the exemplification subjectively and focuses correspondingly on the several philosophical, logical, semiotic and linguistic theories.
In the first chapter of the article, the theory of lying in philosophy is analyzed. The author perceives the classical philosophers as apologists of acceptable lying and then sets the idea in contrast to the notion of lying through the prism of Christian ethics (the outlooks of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas).
The theory of lying of Friedrich Nietzsche is viewed from the perspective of radical relativism. The presented doctrine of “ essential lying” enables the functioning of the human being in the certain reality.
The next highlighted issue is the concept of lying in the philosophical works of Józef Tischner. The dialogical aspect of lying as well as the resultant communicative disturbance between I and You are presented in this part of the paper. In the second chapter of the article, attention is paid to the paradox of liar. In the third chapter the author focuses on the linguistic characteristics of lying. The act of lying is perceived as the linguistic action which aims to determine communicative tactics. Lying is also viewed as the linguistic strategy with its main characteristic of double consciousness of the speaker. In the fourth chapter of the article, lying is presented through the prism of Umberto Eco’s semiotic theory.Marta WybraniecIconicity of ballet signs
In a ballet performance one can specify: creating the sign, the convention and the partner agreement - agreement between artists before the performance. A ballet play is imagining of creating the sign. Straight imitating is mainly an imitative gesture which imitates behaviour.Łukasz ZarzyckiSpecifying new challenging requirements for dialectologists in the 20th century
This paper aims not only at providing an overview and a chronological analysis of the main streams of dialectological research but also at discussing day by day, newer and newer skills and demands that are put on twentieth-century dialectician. Nowadays, a dialectician should have a degree in linguistics and acquire knowledge in terms of information and communication technology which will help them to conduct reliable research results. A present-day dialectician is required to have the ethnographic preparation of the given region like the understanding of the reality of rural life and interest in handicrafts. An additional skill is to have the ability to come into contact with rural population who facilitate the choice of informants.
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