Archiwum - 1(8)/2014 ISSN 1897-0389
Współczesne badania, problemy i analizy językoznawcze
Językoznawstwo nr 8 rok 2014 ISSN 1897-0389
I Studia i rozprawy
Anna Arciszewska O ekspresywności przezwisk i wyzwisk (na przykładzie powieści kryminalnej „Wszystko czerwone” Joanny Chmielewskiej
Marta Dawidziuk Dyskurs i gatunek wypowiedzi jako podstawowe pojęcia współczesnej lingwistyki – wprowadzenie
Patryk Iwańczyk Felietonowe gry z konwencjami gatunkowymi w „Rzucie z autu” Waldemara Lodzińskiego
Joanna Kuć Obraz Polaków na podstawie komentarzy internautów po odwołanym meczu Polska – Anglia na Stadionie Narodowym w 2012 r.
Paulina Mucha Różne znaczenia kolorów, czyli o przykładach konotacji determinowanych płciowo
Jolanta Piekarska Komizm mimowolny w komunikacji dzieci z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną
Laura Polkowska Język prawicy międzywojennej – żywa tradycja czy zapomniana historia?
Bartosz Warzycki Czy to po angielsku? W takim razie biorę!
Maria Wojtak O gatunkach wypowiedzi i ich prasowych konkretyzacjach
Maria Wojtyła-Świerzowska Jeszcze o przezwiskach
Marta Wybraniec Program baletowy jako ważny element komunikatu baletowego
II Recenzje, omówienia i sprawozdania
Katarzyna Dawidowicz Recenzja „Język w Komunikacji”, nr 2, 2012, Wydawnictwo AJD, Częstochowa, ss. 164.
Table of contents
I Studies and dissertations
Anna Arciszewska About the expressiveness of nicknames and invectives (on the example of the criminal novel “Wszystko czerwone” by Joanna Chmielewska
Marta Dawidziuk, The discourse and the species of the statement as basic concepts of modern linguistics – the introduction
Patryk Iwańczyk Genre convention column games in Waldemar Lodziński's “Rzut z autu”
Joanna Kuć Image of Polish people in the comments of internet users after the cancelation of the match Poland – England at the National Stadium in 2012
Paulina Mucha Different meanings of colours, that is about examples of connotations determined genitally
Jolanta Piekarska The involuntary comicality in the communication of children with the intellectual invalidity
Laura Polkowska The language of the interwar-right – the lively tradition or unremembered history?
Bartosz Warzycki Is it in English? Ok, then I’ll take it!
Maria Wojtak About genres of speech and their press realisations
Maria Wojtyła-Świerzowska Still about nicknames
Marta Wybraniec The ballet program as the important component of the ballet announcement
II Reviews, discussions and reports
Katarzyna Dawidowicz, rev., „Język w Komunikacji”, nr 2, 2012, Wydawnictwo AJD, Częstochowa, ss. 164.
About the expressiveness of nicknames and invectives (on the example of the criminal novel "Wszystko czerwone" by Joanna Chmielewska)
Expressiveness of the language is one of the most characteristic features of Polish everyday language. It is often uses to express inner states of the message sender. It also names mental activities as well as external features of man, such as age or sex.
Sobriquets and epithets are closely linked to the transfer of emotions of the speaker directed to the addressee of those expression. They can ridicule or belittle the advantages of a person or even laugh at it. Chmielewska uses both of them. Their overarching role is to show emotional attitude of the main characters of the novel in relation to the form of episodic characters, who are regarded to be less nice.
Keywords: expressiveness of the language, sobriquet, epithet.
The discourse and the species of the statement as basic concepts of modern linguistics
The discourse and the species is two basic concepts of modern linguistics. Both the discourseand the species can be defined as the communication event determined with the context, arising as result of the intermediate or direct lingual interaction; it is the collection of texts spoken or written in the context. This are ambiguous concepts and still formative themselves; this social action constructing the social reality; this usage of the language which is interpreted by affecting of himself people; it is terms widely applied to describe wholes of processes of communicating.
Keywords: modern linguistics, discourse, species of the statement, text, interaction.
Genre convention column games in Waldemar Lodziński’s „Rzut z autu”
The purpose of the present article is to fill up a distinct gap in the state of media studies research by characterising selected columns written by Waldemar Lodziński. The texts were published as a part of „Rzut z autu” cycle (1994–1998) in the „Piłka Nożna” weekly. The text contains conclusions from linguistic analysis of gathered press material made from an angle of interesting genre adaptations present in the texts. Numerous examples of original references can be found in Lodziński’s columns: to other press genres (a letter to the editor, commentary, editorial), various forms characteristic of literature (story, fable, riddle) and usable texts (instructions, regulations, declaration). Conclusions from three sport columns are presented in the present article, stylised to be a folk fable, school descriptive evaluation and a riddle.
Keywords: press genre, sports-paragraph, genre adaptations, letter to the editor, commentary, editorial, story, fable, riddle, instruction, regulations, report, declaration, folk fable, school descriptive evaluation, riddle.
Image of Polish people in the comments of internet users after the cancelation of the match Poland – England at the National Stadium in 2012
The stereotypical vision of Polish people clearly reveals two groups of terms and associated with them components, the first – referring to Polish as a nation, which combines ties of blood and territory. In this section, have been cited comments, showing the relevant features of Polish people as an ethnic, linguistic, moral and cultural units. The second image, based on a binary opposition our – a stranger, which reveals the internal national divisions, is more complex and stratified. The authors of this model are different people, who look back on Polishness from a variety of perspectives, according to their needs and feelings and experiences, which also relativizes the reception. The more you can expect not only the one picture cited by the match cancellation. Both factions give a relative idea of Polish man, which is completed by the assessment, some visions are in competition with each other, partly overlapping each other.
Keywords: image of Polish people, binary opposition, features of Polish people.
Different meanings of colours, that is about examples of connotations determined genitally
In this article one tried to show whether the sexual identity has influence on the reception of colours. To the analysis one subjected statements of pupils of third classes the secondary school. One presented colouristic fancies, similarities and lingual differences in describing of the symbolism of colours by young people with the regard them the sexual dissimilarity and the influence of the perception of colours on the daily life of secondary-school pupils. One paid attention on the relationship of colours with emotions. One noticed that light colours referred to positive feelings and emotions, e.g.: the red to the feeling of love however dark colours, mainly black is most often associated by both sexes anxiously, a suffering, sometimes despairingly.
Keywords: linguistic semantics, connotation, colour, sex, language of the emotion.
The involuntary comicality in the communication of children with the intellectual invalidity
This article is a term which also includes words related to school sphere, it is about student–teacher relationships, about oral and written students’ statements. SEN students utilize a very special way of communication. They take part in public life, they communicate in an oral way. However, their communication is limited, inaccurate and erroneous. The cause of such verbal misbehaviour is not due to language negligence but due to unawareness of being incorrect in expressing themselves. Their unawareness is so broad that it leads to cases of involuntary humour, unintended by the speaker. Involuntary humour found in the written works of SEN students has been analysed in this paper as well as the language behaviour as the basis of such involuntary humour.
Keywords: language communication disorders, language behaviours, involuntary humour, students’ written and verbal statement, communication ways of SEN (Special Education Needs) students, proper language standards.
The language of the interwar-right – the lively tradition or unremembered history?
In the article one made the comparison the language used through the interwar-right during parliamentary deliberations in a modern manner and within a period of interwar. The authoress notices that the language of the pre-war right in the official communication during deliberations of Parliament was not excessively aggressive. In this language comes to light the perception of politicians who represent other position as political opponents whom one ought to overcome, and not as enemies whom one ought ruthlessly to destroy. In a modern manner lingual aggressive behaviours, especially these directed against political competitors are very often met on the parliamentary hall and remind these which are present during street demonstrations or meeting-meetings. To the exposure, but simultaneously popularizations of the language of the aggression in the large measure contribute more and more specialized and various media.
Keywords: the language of the politics, the language of the interwar-right, the language of the aggression.
Is it in English? Ok, then I’ll take it!
The attractiveness of English language or actually its marketing value seems to be widely discussed and deeply understood issue these days. I tried to examine what may be the reason that there are so many English names of products and companies on Polish market. I wanted to analyze whether the language itself is so attractive or maybe there exists some sort of social pressure to like English words in advertisements. To find out the answer for the upper mentioned question it was deeply interesting to use linguistics studies theory and psychological theory, which in this case coexist in a genuinely coherent way. There are situations in which the English name seems ridiculous and hilarious, so another contribution of this paper was to present some examples and explanations of such a marketing strategy.
Keywords: advertisement, language, manipulation, attractiveness of language, Polish brands, English, names of products.
About genres of speech and their press realisations
The author treats genres of speech as models of text organization, i.e. abstract entities organised internally in patterns involving four aspects (structure, semantics, pragmatics and stylistics). Genres recognized in this manner are capacious categories because of their cultural, historical and communication determinants. Most of genre patterns are flexible categories with varying degrees of normativity.
Genres are usually polymorphic phenomena. A set of variants of a genre pattern treated as a model includes: a canonical variant, determining the identity of the genre, alternative variants and adaptive variants, i.e. genre loans. Conventions of particular genres in this regard appear in various arrangements. There are genres with a full range of options, the ones including a canonical and alternative variants or only adaptations. Genres may have movable boundaries and be of transgressive nature.
Press genres have flexible patterns, now shaped by the usus of journalists. They are extremely dynamic and continually modified in text realisations. The identity of many genres in this sphere is determined by their structure. Other parameters are transformed through the operation of various discursive strategies. Authors of press releases are trying primarily to intrigue or entertain the receiver. The function informing about current facts or events, and the function of shaping of an opinion recedes into the background.
The richness of text specimens is accompanied by some model regulations, yet so obscure that the receiver could get the impression that genres become obliterated or even disappear.
Keywords: press, discourse, press discourse, genre of speech, press genres.
The nickname has an unofficial character and temporary. Intermingling in him the plane apelatywna and antroponimiczna. There characterizes it the large range of the expression, from contempts, mercy, malices, slights, across of taunterness, the irony until the friendship, the playfulness. It has a function characterizing. With material for the nickname can be names of objects animated and inanimate, features, activities and states, other personal names, prepositional expressions, continuous expressions, e.g. Ozaist, na ozaist ‘zaiste’ 'indeed'. In nicknames come to light phenomena of the analogy and the formative radiation , e.g. the group of nicknames having the semantic basic value of the performer of the activity (from *choditi, *chodati): Chod, Chód, Chodz, Chodź-ko, Choda, Chodak, Chodek(ko), Chodacz, Chodzak, Chodaj, Chodal, Chodań, Chodasz, Chodzisz, Chodur(a), Chodera, Chodyra, Chodyka, Chodyła, Chodula..
A sub-group of nicknames are the invective. They have a function degrading, insulting. Invectives are caused usually in situations characterized extremely negative emotions – hatred, the aggression, the contempt, the mockery, e.g. „Ty dupku żołędny!”, „bęcwał!”.
Nicknames permit to observe the lively vocabulary and the word-formation (especially expressive), on one hand, and from second – they certify the lexis which more than once long ago fell into desuetude or is registered only in some dialects. Nicknames due to their function, enter on the area of the social psychology and the sociology of social groups, smaller or greater.
Keywords: nickname, invective, phenomena of the analogy and the formative radiation, the lingual expression, dialects.
The ballet program as the important component of the ballet announcement
The ballet can be understood as: a set of statements of certain persons or ballet interpretation of the message and its essential elements, which makes it possible to design a whole. Ballet program can not recognize the species, and unambiguously characterized. You could say that it is communication about communication. Perhaps even discourse interprets the “whole” ballet.
Keywords: program, ballet program, announcement of the ballet performance.