Archiwum - 1(10)/2016 ISSN 2391-5137
Współczesne badania, problemy i analizy językoznawcze
Językoznawstwo nr 10 rok 2016 ISSN 2391-5137
Table of contents
Hunting for a missing link: between a cognitive framework and classroom practices
The problem discussed in this article is the result of a conference on research on the importance of cognitive linguistics for teaching / learning foreign languages. Despite the high methodological standards, the introduction of cognitive grammar in the classroom showed a "missing link" between concepts and reality. In the article, the author describes exercises that should help students discover the correlation between language and somatic experience. The workshop consists of two stages: (i) introduction to the concept of image patterns as conceptual structures of our organization of cognitive function; (II) sample analysis of patterns of image organizing the semantic structure of the chosen language expressions.
Keywords: cognitivism, methodology, linguistics, cognitive grammar, teaching, ESL, EFL
Grzegorz Majkowski, Michał Garncarek
Teaching Polish sign language as a foreign language to people who can hear
Didactics of foreign phonic languages in Europe is often based on the Common European Framework of References for Languages. Teaching Polish Sign Language (PSL) to hearing people is substituted by teaching them Signed Polish, which results in many obstacles in the communication process between deaf and hearing. This article concentrates on different measures to make communication possible and emphasizes the need of teaching PSL to hearing people using standards of Common European Framework of References for Languages.
Keywords:Deaf, sign language, Polish sign language, signed Polish, teaching sign language, Common European Framework of References for Languages, linguistic minority, inculturation, deaf culture
Trying to activate all senses while teaching lower primary school children
This article deals with the practical application of the multisensory method in teaching English language to lower primary school children. At the beginning the author briefly explains the essence of the multisensory method, and stresses the importance of the method in working with new vocabulary during foreign language classes. Next, the author presents a sample lesson for pupils of the second class of primary school in connection with using the multisensory method. In addition, the author introduces the detailed observation sheet where it is clearly visible that activating all the senses while working with the youngest children during foreign language lessons brings great results.
Keywords: Multisensory Teaching Method (i.e. the visual-auditory-kinaesthetic-sensory method) is based on activating all the child's senses in the process of acquiring or teaching a foreign language; VAK Modalities – the acronym for three modalities of learning styles: Visual (sight), Auditory (hearing) and Kinaesthetic (movement); Lower primary school education – the first stage of education in primary school (classes 1–3).
School prayer in the American system of education
Prayer constituted a core element of character and patriotic formation at the outset of the American public education system in the colonial period. Over the years, however, the status of this religious practice has undergone a significant transformation, including a complete ban on school prayer. The article discusses the factors that have had a decisive impact on the status of school prayer, including increasing religious diversity of the American population as well as tensions between dominant and minority religions and non-religion. Both old controversies over state-sponsored and school-run prayer as well as more recent ones surrounding graduation prayer and prayer before sports games will be discussed in more detail on the basis of landmark Supreme Court and lower court cases as well as government regulations, including presidential guidelines and other administrative documents.
Keywords: religious freedom, pluralism, public schools, school prayer, words as actions
From the place names of the Poland-Russia borderline: Cucułowce and Czupernosów
In the article entitled From the place names of the Poland-Russia borderline: Cucułowce and Czupernosów the author is trying to explain the etymology and further transformation of two place names from the area of the historical Lviv land. In the studies on the area of the former Republic of Poland they occur as completely or partly ambiguous, therefore it is attempted to authenticate the proposed clarification.
Keywords: place names, Poland-Russia borderline
About phraseological dictionary of north-eastern region of Wielkopolska dialect
This article discusses original slang collocations and slang equivalents of phraseologisms in the general language. Fixed collocations are rooted in everyday life and cultural experiences. In the local dialect in a wider range than in the general language they expose those life situations that relate to harsh conditions of human existence and resulting relationships.
Keywords:general language phraseologism, slang phraseologim, formal and semantic irregularity of a phraseologism, expressive utterance, vulgarism
The functions of the verbal prefix prze- in the dialect of Lubola near Sieradz
This paper presents a derivative-sementic analysis of prefixial verb formations using the prefix prze- that occur in the dialect of Lubola village near Sieradz. Verbs with the u- prefix in the Lubola dialect create categories that denote the following: 1) ‘covering a distance in space, moving something from one place to another’ (e.g. przeciągnąć), or 2) ‘covering a distance in time while performing an action’ (e.g. przebajdurzyć), 3) ‘examining an object in detail’ (e.g. przebadać), 4) ‘performing an action with less-than-necessary intensity or thoroughness’ (e.g. przemyć), 5) ‘transforming, moving from one into another, constant change’ (e.g. przefarbować), 6) ‘crossing a border or permeating into something’ (e.g. przecedzić), 7) ‘performing an action in reference to future’ (e.g. przepowiedzieć), 8) ‘going too far in doing something’ (e.g. przepaskudzić), 9) ‘superseding someone or something in doing something’ (np. przerosnąć), 10) ‘ceasing, interrupting’ (np. przeszkodzić). A portion of the words has been subjected to lexicalization (e.g. przegapić).
Among the collected examples there are also some characteristic of the dialect: some formative suffixes in the dialect replace standard Polish formative suffixes za-, e.g. przepaskudzić ‘zapaskudzić’; s-, e.g. przetracić ‘starcić’; wy-, e.g. przemłócić ‘wymłócić’; u-, e.g. przeszyć ‘uszyć’. The recorded verbs also include roots other than those included in standars Polish, such as przeburszować.
Keywords:dialect, verb formation in dialect, functions of the prze- prefix in dialect
Initial and final politeness formulas in nineteenth and twentieth-century traditional letters and contemporary electronics letters
The article compares the indicated formulas used in personal letters in times when other indirect forms of written dialogue were not known with the formulas used in modern personal electronics letters.
The aim of the paper is to answer the question what pragmalinguistic changes (except for formal linguistic) occurred in relation between the sender and the addressee of the letter. To what extent have epistolary conventions changed and how it is related to the evolution of politeness customs.
Among the changes of customs I would like to emphasize the forms of distance and community created by the correspondents.
Keywords: traditional letter, electronics letter, linguistic politeness
The touch in medical and paramedical guides -lingual look
The article shows how the 'touch' concept is presented in culture and communication. This phenomenon has not been the subject of lingual studies yet, however it has been only a few articles about this. The sense of touch plays an important role in contemporary world. It comes to be the most important way to build doctor-patient relation. The purpose of this text is to show the material extracted from old medical guides (ninetieth/twentieth centuries) which presents ‘tactile’ communication between doctor and patient, techniques and ways of cure, describes the doctor-patient contact, and analysis of this material. Cognitive classification of speech acts was helpful in to show, which directive acts are present in old medical guides (e.g. prohibitions, commands, manual procedure). First of all there are obliging acts in the pragmalingual analysis. It is worth noting that in the material show directive acts too. These acts cause pressure to recipient and have to get to do something by him (e.g. a lot of prohibitions, commands and also manual procedure of touch of the patient).
Keywords: the touch, senses, medical guides, cognitive classification of speech acts
Humor and wit language in the poetry of Jan Twardowski
One of the main determinants of the poetic style Jan Twardowski are humor and wit language. The poet often used mechanism paradox and contrast, surprise and mild, humorous irony. Thanks to the wit avoided pathos and celebration of religious poetry. Often a form of language contrasts with the metaphysical reflection. Twardowski through a kind of joke refreshed pompous, hieratic, serious religious language
Keywords: humor, with language, poetry, Jan Twardowski
Between words and images: Jacob Lawrence’s linguistic and visual pictures of the Great Migration
Having a reputation as a painter of historical subjects, Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) is particularly recognized for his illustrations of the early twentieth-century African-American migration. His best known series of paintings, The Migration of the Negro (1941), challenges earlier interpretations of Black Americans’ journeys to the North and their everyday lives in the cities. The article explores Lawrence’s visual narratives together with the accompanying textual elements and the ways they present the social, political and cultural implications of the largest ever movement of African-American people across the country. It also considers the series from the perspective of form with a view to reconfiguring the relation between words and images.
Keywords: linguistic versus visual representations of the world, Jacob Lawrence, African-American history, migration, pictures, captions
Several remarks on the intermedial technique of narration in the Polish translation of a debut novel “The Sky under Berlin” by Jaroslav Rudiš
In the theoretical part, we present a historical tradition of the so-called montage effect as a relation between a text and a picture, which relates to the discipline known as linguistics of an image. In the material part, we analyze the intermedial narration technique on the example of a Polish translation of a quasi-novel (a debut novel) by Jaroslav Rudis Niebo pod Berlinem which is examined in the light of Walter Benjamin’s theory of culture.
Keywords: intermedial narration techniques, contemporary culture, Jaroslav Rudiš, literary communication, Walter Benjamin, text and image
Pathos and superlatives in the „Krakauer Zeitung“ as a medium of Nazi propaganda 1939– 1945
In the article, we analyse the language of Nazi propaganda in selected 1939–1945 issues of „KrakauerZeitung”, the daily published in Cracow-based General Government (pol. GeneralneGubernatorstwo) and meant to be one of the most important instruments of the Nazi manipulation among the Polish population. Specifically, the attempts are made to identify and reconstruct some of the intended propaganda objectives behind selected linguistic expressions, with pathos and pride in focus.
Keywords: language of propaganda, manipulation, Polish underground press, General Government, Goebbels
Unlocking the nature of the linguistic sign: in-between motivation and arbitrariness
It is assumed that the radical changes that have taken place in theoretical linguistics over the last 3 decades or so has led to a rejection of the conception of language seen exclusively as an independent and autonomous system of signs. Having set this conception against the background of the major 19th century approaches to language, we claim that the autonomy postulate seems to have been giving way to the idea that language is a symbol of human experience. The article presents, then, a brief, yet systematic, historical survey of the from-motivation-via-arbitrariness-to-motivation projection of linguistics since the 19th century, and identifies some of the practical implications of this projection.
Keywords: history of linguistics, theoretical linguistics, applied linguistics, system, symbol